Full form of Computer is Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research. The computer case, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and power cord are the essential components of a desktop computer. When you use a computer, each component performs a crucial role.
Components of Computer (Hardware)
The following hardware components are required for all general-purpose computers:
- Memory allows a computer to store data and applications, at least temporarily.
- A mass storage device allows a computer to store vast volumes of data indefinitely. Solid state drives (SSDs), disc drives, and tape drives are all common mass storage devices.
- The input device, which is typically a keyboard and mouse, is the channel through which data and instructions enter a computer.
- A display screen, printer, or other device that allows you to see what the computer has accomplished is known as an output device.
- The central processing unit (CPU) is the component that actually executes instructions in the computer.
A motherboard is a component that permits all of the other components to communicate.
What are the types of Computer?
The computer can be classified into three categories based on its data handling capabilities:
a). Analogue Computer
These computers are made to deal with analogue data. Analogue data is data that changes over time and cannot be divided into discrete numbers. We can argue that analogue computers are utilised when exact values, such as speed, temperature, pressure, and current, are not required all of the time.
Analogue computers do not convert data from measuring devices into numbers or codes before accepting it. They record continual changes in physical quantities and display the results as a dial or scale reading. Analogue computers include things like speedometers and mercury thermometers.
b). Digital Computer
The purpose of a digital computer is to do computations and logical processes at a rapid rate. It takes raw data in the form of digits or binary numbers (0 and 1) as input and processes it using instructions stored in its memory to generate output. All current computers, such as laptops and desktop computers, as well as smartphones that we use at home and at work, are digital computers.
c). Hybrid Computer
The features of both analogue and digital computers are combined in a hybrid computer. It’s as fast as an analogue computer, but with the memory and precision of a digital computer. It has the ability to handle both continuous and discrete data. Before processing, it receives analogue signals and converts them to digital form. As a result, it is commonly employed in specialised applications that process both analogue and digital data. In petrol pumps, for example, a processor turns measurements of gasoline flow into amount and price. They’re also employed in aeroplanes, hospitals, and scientific research.
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS BASED ON SIZE AND POWER
The term “computer” is usually associated with a personal computer (PC). A personal computer (PC) is a tiny, low-cost computer meant for a single user. Microprocessor technology allows manufacturers to fit a whole CPU on a single chip, resulting in PCs.
At home, personal computers can be used for a variety of purposes, including games, word processing, accountancy, and other duties.
Although there is some overlap, computers are commonly classified by size and power as follows. As technology improves, the gaps between computer classes become fewer, resulting in smaller, more powerful, and cost-effective components.
A personal computer (PC) is a single-user, compact computer that runs on a microprocessor. A personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for showing information, and a storage device for saving data in addition to the microprocessor.
A workstation is a powerful computer designed for a single user. A workstation is similar to a home computer, but it has a faster processor and a better monitor.
A minicomputer is a multi-user computer that can accommodate anywhere from ten to hundreds of users at the same time.
A mainframe is a sophisticated multi-user computer that may accommodate hundreds or thousands of users at the same time.
A supercomputer is a computer that is capable of processing hundreds of millions of instructions per second.
Quantum computing is a new idea that aims to go beyond classical computer’s binary constraints.